Douglas S. Dickinson and Barbara Dickinson
James H. Suggs et al.
Appeal from Shelby Circuit Court (CV-08-900394)
Douglas S. Dickinson and Barbara Dickinson ("the Dickinsons") appeal from a judgment of the Shelby Circuit Court ("the trial court") entered on April 10, 2014, determining that James H. Suggs, Ruth E. Suggs, and the James H. & Ruth E. Suggs Revocable Trust ("the Suggses") had acquired certain property located in Shelby County from the Dickinsons by adverse possession. We affirm in part and reverse in part.
On June 5, 2008, the Suggses filed a complaint against the Dickinsons requesting that the trial court determine the boundary lines between their properties and that it declare that James and Ruth had adversely possessed a portion of property to which the Dickinsons had title. On September 19, 2008, the Dickinsons filed an answer and a counterclaim seeking to quiet title to the disputed property and asserting claims of slander of title and conversion. After a trial and the trial court's viewing of the property on several different occasions, the trial court entered a judgment on April 10, 2014, determining that the Suggses had adversely possessed a portion of the property to which the Dickinsons had title. On May 9, 2014, the Dickinsons filed a postjudgment motion; that motion was denied on June 24, 2014. On July 21, 2014, the Dickinsons filed their notice of appeal to the Alabama Supreme Court; that court subsequently transferred the appeal to this court, pursuant to Ala. Code 1975, § 12-2-7.
Standard of Review
"Where a trial court hears ore tenus testimony, as in this case, its findings based upon that testimony are presumed correct, and its judgment based on those findings will be reversed only if, after a consideration of all the evidence and after making all inferences that can logically be drawn from the evidence, the judgment is found to be plainly and palpably erroneous. See City of Birmingham v. Sansing Sales of Birmingham, Inc., 547 So.2d 464 (Ala. 1989); King v. Travelers Ins. Co., 513 So.2d 1023 (Ala. 1986); Robinson v. Hamilton, 496 So.2d 8 (Ala. 1986); see, also, Meeks v. Hill, 557 So.2d 1238 (Ala. 1990). The trial court's judgment will be affirmed if there is credible evidence to support the judgment. City of Birmingham v. Sansing Sales of Birmingham, Inc., supra; see, also, American Casualty Co. v. Wright, 554 So.2d 1015 (Ala. 1989). ... The presumption of correctness is particularly strong in boundary line disputes and adverse possession cases, because the evidence in such cases is difficult for an appellate court to review. Seidler v. Phillips, 496 So.2d 714 (Ala. 1986); Wallace v. [Putman], 495 So.2d 1072 (Ala. 1986); Drennen Land & Timber Co. v. Angell, 475 So.2d 1166 (Ala. 1985); May v. Campbell, 470 So.2d 1188 (Ala. 1985)."
Bearden v. Ellison, 560 So.2d 1042, 1043-44 (Ala. 1990). The presumption of correctness afforded a trial court's judgment regarding a property dispute is "further enhanced if the trial court personally views the property in dispute." Wallace v. Putman, 495 So.2d 1072, 1075 (Ala. 1986). "'Questions of law are reviewed de novo.'" Butterworth v. Morgan, 22 So.3d 473, 474-75 (Ala. Civ. App. 2008) (quoting Alabama Republican Party v. McGinley, 893 So.2d 337, 342 (Ala. 2004)).
The parties in this case are coterminous landowners. The property that the Suggses claimed by adverse possession is two separate and distinct parcels of land described as "parcel 4" and "parcel 5." Parcel 4 consists of approximately .4 acres, and parcel 5 consists of approximately .8 acres. On appeal, the Dickinsons argue that the Suggses failed to prove the elements of adverse possession as to both parcels.
We initially note that the trial court did not specifically determine which type of adverse possession applied in this case, and the parties are in dispute on this issue.
"'In Alabama there are basically two types of adverse possession, these two types being statutory adverse possession and adverse possession by prescription. Adverse possession by prescription requires actual, exclusive, open, notorious and hostile possession under a claim of right for a period of twenty years. See, Fitts v. Alexander, 277 Ala. 372, 170 So.2d 808 (1965). Statutory adverse possession requires the same elements, but the statute provides further that if the adverse possessor holds under color of title, has paid taxes for ten years, or derives his title by descent cast or devise from a possessor, he may acquire title in ten years, as opposed to the twenty years required for adverse possession by prescription. [Ala.] Code 1975, § 6-5-200. See, Long v. Ladd, 273 Ala. 410, 142 So.2d 660 (1962).
"'Boundary disputes are subject to a unique set of requirements that is a hybrid of the elements of adverse possession by prescription and statutory adverse possession. In the past there has been some confusion in this area, but the basic requirements are ascertainable from the applicable case law. In a boundary dispute, the coterminous landowners may alter the boundary line between their tracts of land by agreement plus possession for ten years, or by adverse possession for ten years. See, Reynolds v. Rutland, 365 So.2d 656 (Ala. 1978); Carpenter v. Huffman, 294 Ala. 189, 314 So.2d 65 (1975); Smith v. Brown, 282 Ala. 528, 213 So.2d 374 (1968); Lay v. Phillips, 276 Ala. 273, 161 So.2d 477 (1964); Duke v. Wimberly, 245 Ala. 639, 18 So.2d 554 (1944); Smith v. Bachus, 201 Ala. 534, 78 So. 888 (1918). But see, Davis v. Grant, 173 Ala. 4, 55 So. 210 (1911). See also [Ala.] ...